PM2.5 component observations 

(organic carbon, black carbon, sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium)

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Data Status:


Publication State:

21 June 2024


PM2.5 chemical components influence air pollution, climate change, and public health. However, there is absence of publicly available observational component data over China. Here we compile a PM2.5 component dataset based on observational organic carbon, black carbon, sulfate, nitrate and ammonium concentrations since 2000 over China collected from the literature.

The publicly downloadable dataset includes seasonal and annual mean observational concentrations between 2000 and 2014, including 2469 component records nationwide. Here a record represents one measured PM2.5 component at the specific sample site and period. These records cover 30 provinces (including provinces and provincial-level municipalities) and multiple land use types (urban, rural, near the road, and industrial park, etc.).

Other observational component data, such as more detailed data or data during 2014–2021, are available on a collaborative basis.

Keyword: PM2.5 components, observational surface concentrations, China

Figure 1. Observational records of PM2.5 components during 2000–2014 collected from the literature. (a) The map depicts individual provinces in four regions, including the western regions in red colors, Northeast China in purple, North China in blue, and Central and South China in green. The provinces without observational records are in gray. The number denotes each province. (b) Provincial observation records in China. The number on the upper x axis and the color in each bar match the province in panel (a).


Ren, F.-X.Lin, J.-T. *, Xu, C.-H., Adeniran, J. A., Wang, J., Martin, R. V., van Donkelaar, A., Hammer, M., Horowitz, L., Turnock, S. T., Oshima, N., Zhang, J., Bauer, S., Tsigaridis, K., Seland, Ø., Nabat, P., Neubauer, D., Strand, G., van Noije, T., Le Sager, P., and Takemura, T.: Evaluation of CMIP6 model simulations of PM2.5 and its components over China, Geoscientific Model Development, 17, 4821–4836, doi:10.5194/gmd-17-4821-2024, 2024.



Temporal Range:


2000-2014, seasonal and annual mean


Spatial Range:





Authors (3)

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